Oxidized – LDL
A More Accurate Test for the Detection of Atherosclerosis
Oxidized LDL is the atherogenic form of LDL-cholesterol. It is a plaque-specific lipoprotein, found primarily in atherosclerotic plaques and not in normal artery walls. The conversion of LDL-cholesterol to oxidized LDL by reactive oxygen species (ROS – free radicals and peroxides) in the vascular endothelium is now widely recognized and accepted as a key biochemical reaction in the initiation and progression of the atherosclerotic disease process. Oxidized LDL is directly involved in all stages of atherosclerosis, from the conversion of monocyte-macrophages into lipid-laden foam cells; from fatty streak formation to plaque formation; from plaque rupture and intra-arterial thrombosis to ischemia. The level of oxidized LDL found in the bloodstream as a result of plaque formation feedback can differentiate between individuals with atherosclerosis from individuals who are “healthy” and not at risk and can do so with a very high degree of accuracy.
The primary purpose of this notebook is to provide peer-reviewed data from leading medical journals that demonstrate:
(1) native LDL must be converted to oxidized LDL in order to become atherogenic,
(2) that oxidized LDL is the culprit molecule directly involved in the development and progression of atherosclerotic plaque,
(3) that the oxidized LDL assay based on the monoclonal antibody 4E6 is a more accurate marker for coronary artery disease than time-honored conventional lipid and lipoprotein markers,
(4) that oxidized LDL is a prognostic marker for the progression of atherosclerosis and,
(5) that oxidized LDL will become the biomarker of choice for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of atherosclerosis and resulting disease.
Test kits, available for clinical use, are manufactured and distributed by Mercodia AB located in Uppsala, Sweden. About 400,000 patients have been evaluated by pharmaceutical companies and research organizations using Mercodia’s microtiter plate assays. While the pharmaceutical studies are confidential, some 400 articles/posters have been published.